Lena Horne, Singer and Actress, Dies at 92 -
By ALJEAN HARMETZ
Lena Horne, who
was the first black performer to be signed to a long-term contract by a major
Hollywood studio and who went on to achieve international fame as a singer, died
on Sunday night at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New
York. She was 92 and lived in Manhattan.
Her death was announced by her
son-in-law, Kevin Buckley.
Ms. Horne might have become a major movie star,
but she was born 50 years too early, and languished at MGM in the 1940s because
of the color of her skin, although she was so light-skinned that, when she was a
child, other black children had taunted her, accusing her of having a “white
Ms. Horne was stuffed into one “all-star” musical after another —
“Thousands Cheer” (1943), “Broadway Rhythm” (1944), “Two Girls and a Sailor”
(1944), “Ziegfeld Follies” (1946), “Words and Music” (1948) — to sing a song or
two that could easily be snipped from the movie when it played in the South,
where the idea of an African-American performer in anything but a subservient
role in a movie with an otherwise all-white cast was unthinkable.
time I ever said a word to another actor who was white was Kathryn Grayson in a
little segment of ‘Show Boat’ ” included in “Till the Clouds Roll By” (1946), a
movie about the life of Jerome Kern, Ms. Horne said in an interview in 1990. In
that sequence she played Julie, a mulatto forced to flee the showboat because
she has married a white man.
But when MGM made “Show Boat” into a movie for
the second time, in 1951, the role of Julie was given to a white actress, Ava
Gardner, who did not do her own singing. (Ms. Horne was no longer under contract
to MGM at the time, and according to James Gavin’s Horne biography, “Stormy
Weather,” published last year, she was never seriously considered for the part.)
And in 1947, when Ms. Horne herself married a white man — the prominent
arranger, conductor and pianist Lennie Hayton, who was for many years both her
musical director and MGM’s — the marriage took place in France and was kept
secret for three years.
Ms. Horne’s first MGM movie was “Panama Hattie”
(1942), in which she sang Cole Porter’s “Just One of Those Things.” Writing
about that film years later, Pauline Kael called it “a sad disappointment,
though Lena Horne is ravishing and when she sings you can forget the rest of the
Even before she came to Hollywood, Brooks Atkinson, the drama
critic for The New York Times, noticed Ms. Horne in “Lew Leslie’s Blackbirds of
1939,” a Broadway revue that ran for nine performances. “A radiantly beautiful
sepia girl,” he wrote, “who will be a winner when she has proper
She had proper direction in two all-black movie musicals,
both made in 1943. Lent to 20th Century Fox for “Stormy Weather,” one of those
show business musicals with almost no plot but lots of singing and dancing, Ms.
Horne did both triumphantly, ending with the sultry, aching sadness of the title
number, which would become one of her signature songs. In MGM’s “Cabin in the
Sky,” the first film directed by Vincente Minnelli, she was the brazen, sexy
handmaiden of the Devil. (One number she shot for that film, “Ain’t It the
Truth,” which she sang while taking a bubble bath, was deleted before the film
was released — not for racial reasons, as her stand-alone performances in other
MGM musicals sometimes were, but because it was considered too risqué.)
1945 the critic and screenwriter Frank Nugent wrote in Liberty magazine that Ms.
Horne was “the nation’s top Negro entertainer.” In addition to her MGM salary of
$1,000 a week, she was earning $1,500 for every radio appearance and $6,500 a
week when she played nightclubs. She was also popular with servicemen, white and
black, during World War II, appearing more than a dozen times on the Army radio
program “Command Performance.”
“The whole thing that made me a star was the
war,” Ms. Horne said in the 1990 interview. “Of course the black guys couldn’t
put Betty Grable’s picture in their footlockers. But they could put mine.”
Touring Army camps for the U.S.O., Ms. Horne was outspoken in her criticism
of the way black soldiers were treated. “So the U.S.O. got mad,” she recalled.
“And they said, ‘You’re not going to be allowed to go anyplace anymore under our
auspices.’ So from then on I was labeled a bad little Red girl.”
Horne later claimed that for this and other reasons, including her friendship
with leftists like Paul Robeson and W.E.B. DuBois, she was blacklisted and
“unable to do films or television for the next seven years” after her tenure
with MGM ended in 1950.
This was not quite true: as Mr. Gavin has
documented, she appeared frequently on “Your Show of Shows” and other television
shows in the 1950s, and in fact “found more acceptance” on television “than
almost any other black performer.” And Mr. Gavin and others have suggested that
there were other factors in addition to politics or race involved in her lack of
Although absent from the screen, she found success in
nightclubs and on records. “Lena Horne at the Waldorf-Astoria,” recorded during
a well-received eight-week run in 1957, reached the Top 10 and became the
best-selling album by a female singer in RCA Victor’s history.
In the early
1960s Ms. Horne, always outspoken on the subject of civil rights, became
increasingly active, participating in numerous marches and protests.
1969, she returned briefly to films, playing the love interest of a white actor,
Richard Widmark, in “Death of a Gunfighter.”
She was to act in only one
other movie: In 1978 she played Glinda the Good Witch in “The Wiz,” the film
version of the all-black Broadway musical based on “The Wizard of Oz.” But she
never stopped singing.
She continued to record prolifically well into
the 1990s, for RCA and other labels, notably United Artists and Blue Note. And
she conquered Broadway in 1981 with a one-woman show, “Lena Horne: The Lady and
Her Music,” which ran for 14 months and won both rave reviews and a Tony Award.
Ms. Horne’s voice was not particularly powerful, but it was extremely
expressive. She reached her listeners emotionally by acting as well as singing
the romantic standards like “The Man I Love” and “Moon River” that dominated her
The person she always credited as her main influence was not
another singer but a pianist and composer, Duke Ellington’s longtime associate
“I wasn’t born a singer,” she told Strayhorn’s biographer,
David Hajdu. “I had to learn a lot. Billy rehearsed me. He stretched me
vocally.” Strayhorn occasionally worked as her accompanist and, she said,
“taught me the basics of music, because I didn’t know anything.”
was also, she said, “the only man I ever loved,” but Strayhorn was openly gay,
and their close friendship never became a romance. “He was just everything that
I wanted in a man,” she told Mr. Hajdu, “except he wasn’t interested in me
Lena Calhoun Horne was born in Brooklyn on June 30, 1917. All
four of her grandparents were industrious members of Brooklyn’s black middle
class. Her paternal grandparents, Edwin and Cora Horne, were early members of
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and in October
1919, at the age of 2, Lena was the cover girl for the organization’s monthly
By then the marriage of her parents, Edna and Teddy Horne, was
in trouble. “She was spoiled and badly educated and he was fickle,” Ms. Horne’s
daughter, Gail Lumet Buckley, wrote in her family history, “The Hornes.” By 1920
Teddy had left his job with the New York Department of Labor and fled to
Seattle, and Edna had fled to a life on the stage in Harlem. Ms. Horne was
raised by her paternal grandparents until her mother took her back four years
When she was 16, her mother abruptly pulled her out of school to
audition for the dance chorus at the Cotton Club, the famous Harlem nightclub
where the customers were white, the barely dressed dancers were light-skinned
blacks, Duke Ellington was the star of the show and the proprietors were
gangsters. A year after joining the Cotton Club chorus she made her Broadway
debut, performing a voodoo dance in the short-lived show “Dance With Your Gods”
At 19, Ms. Horne married the first man she had ever dated,
28-year-old Louis Jones, and became a conventional middle-class Pittsburgh wife.
Her daughter Gail was born in 1937 and a son, Teddy, in 1940. The marriage ended
soon afterward. Ms. Horne kept Gail, but Mr. Jones refused to give up Teddy,
although he did allow the boy long visits with his mother.
In 1938, Ms.
Horne starred in a quickie black musical film, “The Duke Is Tops,” for which she
was never paid. Her return to movies was on a grander scale.
been singing at the Manhattan nightclub Café Society when the impresario Felix
Young chose her to star at the Trocadero, a nightclub he was planning to open in
Hollywood in the fall of 1941. In 1990, Ms. Horne reminisced: “My only friends
were the group of New Yorkers who sort of stuck with their own group — like
Vincente, Gene Kelly, Yip Harburg and Harold Arlen, and Richard Whorf — the sort
of hip New Yorkers who allowed Paul Robeson and me in their houses.”
blacks were not allowed to live in Hollywood, “Felix Young, a white man, signed
for the house as if he was going to rent it,” Ms. Horne said. “When the
neighbors found out, Humphrey Bogart, who lived right across the street from me,
raised hell with them for passing around a petition to get rid of me.” Bogart,
she said, “sent word over to the house that if anybody bothered me, please let
Roger Edens, the composer and musical arranger who had been Judy
Garland’s chief protector at MGM, had heard the elegant Ms. Horne sing at Café
Society and also went to hear her at the Little Troc (the war had scaled Mr.
Young’s ambitions down to a small club with a gambling den on the second floor).
He insisted that Arthur Freed, the producer of MGM’s lavish musicals, listen to
Ms. Horne sing. Then Freed insisted that Louis B. Mayer, who ran the studio,
hear her, too. He did, and soon she had signed a seven-year contract with MGM.
The N.A.A.C.P. celebrated that contract as a weapon in its war to get better
movie roles for black performers. Her father weighed in, too. In a 1997 PBS
interview, she recalled: “My father said, ‘I can get a maid for my daughter. I
don’t want her in the movies playing maids.’ ”
Ms. Horne is survived by her
daughter, Gail Lumet Buckley. Her husband died in 1971; her son died of kidney
failure the same year.
Looking back at the age of 80, Ms. Horne said: “My
identity is very clear to me now. I am a black woman. I’m free. I no longer have
to be a ‘credit.’ I don’t have to be a symbol to anybody; I don’t have to be a
first to anybody. I don’t have to be an imitation of a white woman that
Hollywood sort of hoped I’d become. I’m me, and I’m like nobody
Peter Keepnews contributed reporting.